Publications and Papers

Presentations at Internoise 2016

Download PDFs of the papers presentated at Internoise 2016 in Hamburg, Germany.

Relevance of the equal energy principle to individual sources of neighbourhood noise - Daniel Baker

Abstract: The characterization of noise is relevant to acoustic disciplines concerned with effects and impact on humans. The LAeq,T is often applied to assessments of environmental and occupational noise. LAeq,T is used as an environmental noise descriptor for characterizing the total ambient sound environment and specific elements of the soundscape. Environmental noise standards generally concentrate on dose response relationships based primarily on research of transportation sources. However, such relationships do not appear to exist for specific sources in the sound environment, for example neighbourhood noise arising from a specific site, due to non-acoustic factors. This paper considers three sources of neighbourhood noise that are discriminable at residential dwellings. Reliance on the equal energy hypothesis, applied to neighbourhood sources, appears to understate the impact of noise on receptors following repeat exposure when applied to specific elements of the soundscape. Application of the equal energy principle as a means to characterize noise impact and its effects appears less relevant to the specific sources considered. Standards for characterizing sources of neighbourhood noise are required to provide a complete assessment considering not only the total ambient noise dose but specific components of the sound environment and annoyance response.

A quantitative and qualitative review of amplitude modulation noise from wind energy development - Sarah Large

Abstract: The adverse impact of amplitude modulation (AM) has been acknowledged in research, papers, and anecdotal evidence since at least 2002. Only in 2013, in the UK, did wind industry acousticians finally acknowledge the common impact of AM and the need for control. Some still deny the need for control at public inquiries. Despite two independent bodies, the Institute of Acoustics (IoA) and the Independent Noise Working Group (INWG), announcing a review of AM from a planning perspective in 2014 and the UK Government's DECC commissioning further review of AM in 2015 the UK is still, at the time of writing, without any unanimous and/or accepted guidance for assessing and conditioning AM at the planning stage.
This paper reviews a range of metrics and methods that have been proposed and their ability to work with real world data. This paper questions whether a "one size fits all", purely quantitative approach reflects subjective AM impact and provides initial findings of a preliminary study testing whether different manifestations of AM can be considered equal.

Technical Notes on Noise

Application of noise guidance to the assessment of industrial noise with character on residential dwellings in the UK

MAS have published a technical note in the Journal of Applied Acoustics entitled "Application of noise guidance to the assessment of industrial noise with character on residential dwellings in the UK"

The article is available via the Elsevier website online and as a free pdf download until 5th April 2015. After this date there is a charge to access the publication.

The article may be accessed via the link below:

The technical note conducts a critical review of noise guidance routinely used to determine the acoustic acceptability of site identifiable industrial noise on new or existing dwellings. This includes the WHO Guidelines for Community Noise 1999, WHO Night noise guidelines for Europe 2009, BS8233 2014 Guidance on sound insulation and noise reduction for buildings and BS4142 2014 Methods for rating industrial sound affecting mixed. The technical note compares four sources of industrial noise with character including a supermarket delivery, blanking press, metals recycling and metal fabrication.

The technical note should be of interest to professionals working in Environmental Health and Acoustics who regularly use noise guidance to assess proposed residential or industrial developments or existing industrial noise impact on dwellings.

Audio is available for the graphs presented within the technical note which should assist understanding.

We are interested in receiving feedback on the article particularly from Environmental Health Professionals. Any questions can be sent to dbaker(at) or admin(at)

Papers regarding wind farm noise released by MAS Environmental

MAS Study of article method versus ETSU-R-97

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The effect of a common wind shear adjustment methodology on the assessment of wind farms when applying ETSU-R-97

Summary to: MAS Study of article method versus ETSU-R-97

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A short summary of the above study.


Mike Stigwood
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